Xem thông tin phần cứng trên Linux bằng lệnh dmidecode

Ngoài /proc/cpuinfo, /proc/meminfo, lshw, … để xem thông tin phần cứng trên Linux còn sử dụng lệnh dmidecode, lệnh này sẽ hữu ích trong một số trường hợp.

dmidecode – đọc bảng DMI của hệ thống và hiển thị thông tin về phần cứng và BIOS

DMI là viết tắt của từ Desktop Management Interface – dùng để quản lý và theo dõi các thành phần trên máy tính. Đọc thêm tại: http://www.dmtf.org/standards/dmi/

Một bản ghi trong bảng DMI có dạng:

Record Header: Handle {record id}, DMI type {dmi type id}, {record size} bytes
Record Value: {multi line record value}

record id: định danh duy nhất cho bản ghi
dmi type id: loại bản ghi
record size: kích cỡ của bản ghi
multi line record value: giá trị bản ghi cho một loại DMI xác định

Một vài ví dụ :
Thông tin về BIOS:

# dmidecode -t bios
# dmidecode 2.9
SMBIOS 2.4 present.

Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes
BIOS Information
Vendor: Phoenix Technologies LTD
Version: R0070J4
Release Date: 12/06/2006
Address: 0xE7210
Runtime Size: 101872 bytes
ROM Size: 1024 kB
Characteristics:
PCI is supported
PC Card (PCMCIA) is supported
PNP is supported
BIOS is upgradeable
BIOS shadowing is allowed
ESCD support is available
Boot from CD is supported
Selectable boot is supported
EDD is supported
8042 keyboard services are supported (int 9h)
CGA/mono video services are supported (int 10h)
ACPI is supported
USB legacy is supported
AGP is supported
Smart battery is supported
BIOS boot specification is supported
Function key-initiated network boot is supported
Targeted content distribution is supported
BIOS Revision: 7.0
Firmware Revision: 7.0

Thông tin về hệ thống:
# dmidecode -t 1

# dmidecode 2.9
SMBIOS 2.4 present.

Handle 0x0001, DMI type 1, 27 bytes
System Information
Manufacturer: Sony Corporation
Product Name: VGN-N230E
Version: C3LNME3Z
Serial Number: 28249635-3008138
UUID: 7C1A72A0-B4E7-11DB-893E-0013A94F8444
Wake-up Type: Power Switch
SKU Number: N/A
Family: N/A

Thông tin về bộ xử lý:
# dmidecode -t Processor

# dmidecode 2.9
SMBIOS 2.4 present.

Handle 0x0004, DMI type 4, 35 bytes
Processor Information
Socket Designation: N/A
Type: Central Processor
Family: Other
Manufacturer: GenuineIntel
ID: E8 06 00 00 FF FB E9 BF
Version: Genuine Intel(R) CPU           T2250  @ 1.73GHz
Voltage: 1.3 V
External Clock: 133 MHz
Max Speed: 1733 MHz
Current Speed: 1733 MHz
Status: Populated, Enabled
Upgrade: None
L1 Cache Handle: 0x0005
L2 Cache Handle: 0x0006
L3 Cache Handle: 0x0007
Serial Number: N/A
Asset Tag: N/A
Part Number: N/A

Thông tin về RAM: có bao nhiêu thanh, lượng RAM lớn nhất hỗ trợ, …
# dmidecode -t memory

# dmidecode 2.9
SMBIOS 2.4 present.

Handle 0x0009, DMI type 16, 15 bytes
Physical Memory Array
Location: System Board Or Motherboard
Use: System Memory
Error Correction Type: None
Maximum Capacity: 2048 GB
Error Information Handle: Not Provided
Number Of Devices: 2

Handle 0x000A, DMI type 17, 21 bytes
Memory Device
Array Handle: 0x0009
Error Information Handle: Not Provided
Total Width: 64 bits
Data Width: 64 bits
Size: 1024 MB
Form Factor: SODIMM
Set: None
Locator: SODIMM1
Bank Locator: Bank 0
Type: DDR2
Type Detail: Unknown

Handle 0x000B, DMI type 17, 21 bytes
Memory Device
Array Handle: 0x0009
Error Information Handle: Not Provided
Total Width: 64 bits
Data Width: 64 bits
Size: 1024 MB
Form Factor: SODIMM
Set: None
Locator: SODIMM2
Bank Locator: Bank 1
Type: DDR2
Type Detail: Unknown

Các loại DMI:
Type Information

—————————————-
0   BIOS
1   System
2   Base Board
3   Chassis
4   Processor
5   Memory Controller
6   Memory Module
7   Cache
8   Port Connector
9   System Slots
10   On Board Devices
11   OEM Strings
12   System Configuration Options
13   BIOS Language
14   Group Associations
15   System Event Log
16   Physical Memory Array
17   Memory Device
18   32-bit Memory Error
19   Memory Array Mapped Address
20   Memory Device Mapped Address
21   Built-in Pointing Device
22   Portable Battery
23   System Reset
24   Hardware Security
25   System Power Controls
26   Voltage Probe
27   Cooling Device
28   Temperature Probe
29   Electrical Current Probe
30   Out-of-band Remote Access
31   Boot Integrity Services
32   System Boot
33   64-bit Memory Error
34   Management Device
35   Management Device Component
36   Management Device Threshold Data
37   Memory Channel
38   IPMI Device
39   Power Supply

# dmidecode -t baseboard
# dmidecode 2.9
SMBIOS 2.3 present.

Handle 0x0200, DMI type 2, 9 bytes
Base Board Information
Manufacturer: Dell Computer Corporation
Product Name: 123456
Version: A05
Serial Number: ..CN123456789098.

Handle 0x0A00, DMI type 10, 14 bytes
On Board Device 1 Information
Type: SCSI Controller
Status: Enabled
Description: LSI Logic 53C1030 Ultra 320 SCSI
On Board Device 2 Information
Type: SCSI Controller
Status: Enabled
Description: LSI Logic 53C1030 Ultra 320 SCSI
On Board Device 3 Information
Type: Video
Status: Enabled
Description: ATI Rage XL PCI Video
On Board Device 4 Information
Type: Ethernet
Status: Enabled
Description: Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet 1
On Board Device 5 Information
Type: Ethernet
Status: Enabled
Description: Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet 2

# dmidecode -t system
# dmidecode 2.9
SMBIOS 2.3 present.

Handle 0x0100, DMI type 1, 25 bytes
System Information
Manufacturer: Dell Computer Corporation
Product Name: PowerEdge 1750
Version: Not Specified
Serial Number: 1234567
UUID: 4123454C-4123-1123-8123-12345603431
Wake-up Type: Power Switch

Handle 0x0C00, DMI type 12, 5 bytes
System Configuration Options
Option 1: NVRAM_CLR:  Clear user settable NVRAM areas and set defaults
Option 2: PASSWD:  Close to enable password

Handle 0x2000, DMI type 32, 11 bytes
System Boot Information
Status: No errors detected


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